Home
Subjects
Explanations
Create
Study sets, textbooks, questions
Log in
Sign up
Upgrade to remove ads
Only $35.99/year
HMG 6585 Chapter 1 Vocab
STUDY
Flashcards
Learn
Write
Spell
Test
PLAY
Match
Gravity
Terms in this set (77)
between-groups design
another name for independent design.
between-subjects design
another name for independent design.
bimodal
a description of a distribution of observations that has two modes
binary variable
a categorical variable that has only two mutually exclusive categories (e.g., being dead or alive)
boredom effect
refers to the possibility that performance in tasks may be influenced (assumed negative) by boredom/lack of concentration if there are many tasks, or the task goes on for a long period of time. In short, what you are experiencing reading this glossary is a boredom effect.
categorical variable
any variable made up of categories of objects/entities. The university you attend is a good example of a categorical variable: students who attend the University of Sussex are not also enrolled at Harvard or UV Amsterdam, therefore, students fall into distinct categories.
central tendency
a generic term describing the center of a frequency distribution of observations as measured by the mean, mode, and median
concurrent validity
a form of criterion validity where there is evidence that scores from an instrument correspond to concurrently recorded external measures conceptually related to the measured construct.
confounding variable
a variable (that we may or may not have measured) other than the predictor variables in which we're interested that potentially affects an outcome variable.
content validity
evidence that the content of a test corresponds to the content of the construct it was designed to cover
continuous variable
a variable that can be measured to any level of precision. (Time is a continuous variable, because there is in principle no limit on how finely it could be measured.)
correlational research
a form of research in which you observe what naturally goes on in the world without directly interfering with it. This term implies that data will be analyzed so as to look at relationships between naturally occurring variables rather than making statements about cause and effect. Compare with cross-sectional research, longitudinal research, and experimental research.
Counterbalancing
a process of systemically varying the order in which experimental conditions are conducted. In the simplest case of there being two conditions (A and B), counterbalancing simply implies that half of the participants complete condition A followed by condition B, whereas the remainder do condition B followed by condition A. The aim is to remove systematic bias caused by practice effects or boredom effects.
criterion validity
evidence that scores from an instrument correspond with (concurrent validity) or predict (predictive validity) external measures conceptually related to the measured contruct.
cross-sectional research
a form of research in which you observe what naturally goes on in the world without directly interfering with it by measuring several variables at a single time point. In psychology, this term usually implies that data come from people at different age points, with different people representing each age point.
dependent variable
another name for outcome variable. This name is usually associated with experimental methodology (which is the only time it really makes sense) and is used because it is the variable that is not manipulated by the experimenter and so its value depends on the variables that have been manipulated. To be honest, I just use the term outcome variable all the time- it makes more sense (to me) and is less confusing
deviance
the difference between the observed value of a variable and the value of that variable predicted by a statistical model
discrete variable
a variable that can only take on certain values (usually whole numbers) on the scale
ecological validity
evidence that the results of a study, experiment or test can be applied, and allow inferences, to real-world conditions.
experimental research
a form of research in which one or more variables are systemically manipulated to see their effect (alone or in combination) on an outcome variable. This term implies that data will be able to be used to make statements about cause and effect.
falsification
the act of disproving a hypothesis or theory.
frequency distribution
a graph plotting values of observations on the horizontal axis, and the frequency with which each value occurs in the data set on the vertical axis (a.k.a. histogram)
histogram
a frequency distribution
hypothesis
a proposed explanation for a fairly narrow phenomenon or set of observations. It is not a guess, but an informed, theory-driven attempt to explain what has been observed. A hypothesis cannot be tested directly but must first be operationalized as predictions about variables that can be measured.
independent design
an experimental design in which different treatment conditions utilize different organisms (e.g. in psychology this would mean using different people in different treatment conditions) and so the resulting data are independent (aka between-group or between-subject design).
independent variable
another name for the predictor variable. This name is usually associated with experimental methodology (which is the only time it makes sense) and is used because it is the variable that is manipulated by the experimenter and so its value does not depend on any other variables (just on the experimenter). I just use the term predictor variable all the time because the meaning of the term is not constrained to a particular methodology.
interquartile range
the limits within which the middle 50% of an ordered set of observations fall. It is the difference between the value of the upper quartile and the lower quartile.
interval variable
data measured on a scale along the whole of which intervals are equal. For example, people's ratings of this book on Amazon.com can range from 1 to 5; for these data to be interval it should be true that the increase in appreciation for this book represented by a change from 3 to 4 along the scale should be the same as the change in appreciation represented by a change from 1 to 2 or 4 to 5.
journal
in the context of academia a journal is a collection of articles on a broadly related theme, written by scientists, that report new data, new theoretical ideas or reviews/critiques of existing theories and data. Their main function is to induce learned helplessness in scientists through a complex process of self-esteem regulation using excessively harsh or complimentary peer feedback that has seemingly no obvious correlation with the actual quality of the work submitted.
kurtosis
this measures the degree to which scores cluster in the tails of a frequency distribution. Kurtosis is calculated such that no kurtosis yields a value of 3. To make the measure more intuitive, SPSS Statistics (and some other packages) subtract 3 from the value so that no kurtosis is expressed as 0 and positive and negative kurtosis take on positive and negative values respectively.
leptokurtic
a distribution with a positive kurtosis has too many scores in the tails and is too peaked
level of measurement
The relationship between what is being measured and the numbers obtained on a scale.
longitudinal research
a form of research in which you observe what naturally goes on in the world without directly interfering with it, by measuring several variables at multiple time points.
lower quartile
the value that cuts off the lowest 25% of the data. If the data are ordered and then divided into two halves at the median, then the lower quartile is the median of the lower half of the scores.
mean
a simple statistical model of the center of a distribution of scores. A hypothetical estimate of the 'typical' score.
measurement error
the discrepancy between the numbers used to represent the thing that we're measuring and the actual value of the thing we're measuring (i.e., the value we would get if we could measure it directly).
median
the middle score of a set of ordered observations. When there is an even number of observations the median is the average of the two scores that fall either side of what would be the middle value.
mode
the most frequently occurring score(s) in a distribution
multimodal
description of a distribution of observations that has more than two modes.
negative skew
when the frequent scores are clustered at the higher end of the distribution and the tail points towards the lower or more negative scores
nominal variable
Where numbers merely represent names. For example, the numbers on sports players shirts; a player with the number 1 on her back is not necessarily worse than a player with a 2 on her back. The numbers have no meaning other than denoting the type of player (full back, center forward, etc.)
nonile
a type of quantile; they are values that split the data into nine equal parts. They are commonly used in educational research.
normal distribution
a probability distribution of a random variable that is known to have certain properties. It is perfectly symmetrical (has a skew of 0), and has a kurtosis of 0.
ordinal variable
data that tell us not only that things have occurred, but also the order in which they occurred. These data tell us nothing about the differences between values. For example, gold, silver, and bronze medals are ordinal: they tell us that the gold medalist was better than the silver medalist, but they don't tell us how much better (was gold a lot better than silver or were gold and silver very closely competed?)
outcome variable
...
percentile
...
platykurtic
a distribution with a negative kurtosis has too few scores in the tails and is quite flat
positive skew
when the frequent scores are clustered at the lower end of the distribution and the tail points towards the higher or more positive scores
practice effect
refers to the possibility that participants' performance in a task may be influenced (positively or negatively) if they repeat the task because of familiarity with the experimental situation and/or the measures being used
predictive validity
a form of criterion validity where there is evidence that scores from an instrument predict external measures (recorded at a different point in time) conceptually related to the measured construct
predictor variable
a variable that is used to try to predict values of another variable known as an outcome variable
probability density function (PDF)
the function that describes the probability of a random variable taking a certain value. It is the mathematical function that describes the probability distribution.
probability distribution
a curve describing an idealized frequency distribution of a particular variable from which it is possible to ascertain the probability with which specific values of that variable will occur. For categorical variables it is simply a formula yielding the probability with which each category occurs.
qualitative methods
extrapolating evidence for a theory from what people say or write
quantile
values that split a data set into equal portions. Quartiles, for example, are a special case of quantiles that split the data into four equal parts. Similarly, percentiles are points that split the data into 100 equal parts and noniles are points that split the data into nine equal parts
quantitative methods
inferring evidence for a theory through measurement of variables that produce numeric outcomes
quartile
generic term for the three values that cut an ordered data set into four equal parts. The three quartiles are known as the first or lower quartile, the second quartile (or median) and the third or upper quartile
randomization
the process of doing things in an unsystematic or random way. In the context of experimental research the word usually applies to the random assignment of participants to different treatment conditions.
range
the range of scores is the value of the smallest score subtracted from the highest score. It is a measure of the dispersion of a set of scores.
ratio variable
an interval variable but with the additional property that ratios are meaningful. For example, people's ratings of this books on Amazon.com can range from 1 to 5; for these data to be ratio not only must they have the properties of interval variables, but in addition a rating of 4 should genuinely represent someone who enjoyed this book twice as much as someone who rated it as 2. Likewise, someone who rated it as 1 should be half as impressed as someone who rated it as 2.
reliability
the ability of a measure to produce consistent results when the same entities are measured under different conditions.
repeated-measures design
an experimental design in which different treatment conditions utilize the same organisms (i.e., in psychology, this would mean the same people take part in all experimental conditions) and so the resulting data are related (a.k.a. related design or within-subject design).
second quartile
another name for the median
skew
a measure of symmetry of a frequency distribution. Symmetrical distributions have a skew of 0.
standard deviation
an estimate of the average variability (spread) of a set of data measured in the same units of measurement as the original data. It is the square root of the variance
sum of squared errors
another name for the sum of squares
systematic variation
variation due to some genuine effect (be that the effect of an experimenter doing something to all of the participants in one sample but not in other samples, or natural variation between sets of variables). We can think of this as variation that can be explained by the model that we've fitted to the data.
tertium quid
the possibility that an apparent relationship between two variables is actually caused by the effect of a third variable on them both (often called the third-variable problem).
test-retest reliability
the ability of a measure to produce consistent results when the same entities are tested at two different points in time.
theory
although it can be defined more formally, a theory is a hypothesized general principle or set of principles that explain known findings about a topic and from which new hypotheses can be generated. Theories have typically been well-substantiated by repeated testing.
Unsystematic variation
this is variation that isn't due to the effect in which we're interested (so could be due to natural differences between people in different samples such as differences in intelligence or motivation). We can think of this as variation that can't be explained by whatever model we've fitted to the data.
upper quartile
the value that cuts off the highest 25% of ordered scores. If the scores are ordered and then divided into two halves at the median, then the upper quartile is the median of the top half of the scores.
validity
evidence that a study allows correct inferences about the question it was aimed to answer or that a test measures what it set out to measure conceptually.
variables
anything that can be measured and can differ across entities or across time
variance
an estimate of average variability (spread) of a set of data. It is the sum of squares divided by the number of values on which the sum of squares is based minus 1.
within-subject design
another name for repeated-measures design
z-scores
the value of an observation expressed in standard deviation units. It is calculated by taking the observation, subtracting from it the mean of all observations. By converting a distribution of observations into z-scores a new distribution is created that has a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1.
Recommended textbook explanations
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
3rd Edition
David G Myers
955 explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
2nd Edition
David G Myers
900 explanations
Psychology
Arlene Lacombe, Kathryn Dumper, Rose Spielman, William Jenkins
580 explanations
Myers' Psychology for AP
1st Edition
David G Myers
313 explanations
Sets with similar terms
Final Exam
63 terms
Stats vocab #1
74 terms
[COPY] OSU Psychology 2220 Midterm 1
82 terms
Unit 2 Review
37 terms
Other sets by this creator
Ch. 2 Vocab - HMG 6585
31 terms
Chapter 4 Key Terms
7 terms
Chapter 2 Vocab
14 terms
CHAPTER 2 KEY TERMS
2 terms
Other Quizlet sets
Micro exam 2 - PSA
16 terms
Botany Exam 1 Ch 3 Lecture 2 Review
89 terms
2.3 - Planned Cities on the Indus
21 terms
Related questions
QUESTION
When is an outlier most likely to be problematic?
QUESTION
A main difference between laboratory experiments and non experimental studies is that non experimental studies
QUESTION
True or False: Social work research questions don't have to be empirical because ethics are a part of our profession.
QUESTION
how does research overcome the problem of confounds?